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Human society is not homogeneous but heterogeneous. Apart from the natural differences, human beings are also differentiated according to socially approved criteria.
So socially differentiated men are treated as socially unequal from the point of view of enjoyment of social rewards like status, power, income etc.
That may be called social inequality. The term social inequality simply refers to the existence of socially created inequalities. Social stratification is a particular form of social inequality. All societies arrange their members in terms of superiority, inferiority and equality.
Stratification is a process of interaction or differentiation whereby some people come to rank higher than others. In one word, when individuals and groups are ranked, according to some commonly accepted basis of valuation in a hierarchy of status levels based upon the inequality of social positions, social stratification occurs.
Social stratification means division of society into different strata or layers. It involves a hierarchy of social groups. Members of a particular layer have a common identity. They have a similar life style.
The Indian Caste system provides an example of stratification system.
The society in which divisions of social classes exist is known as a stratified society. Modern stratification fundamentally differs from stratification of primitive societies. Social stratification involves two phenomena i differentiation of individuals or groups on the basis of possession of certain characteristics whereby some individuals or groups come to rank higher than others, ii the ranking of individuals according to some basis of evaluation.
Sociologists are concerned not merely with the facts of social differences but also with their social evaluation. Regarding the origin of stratification many views have been given. Types of Social Stratification: Social stratification is based upon a variety of principles.
So we find different type of stratification. Each estate had a state. In slavery, every slave had his master to whom he was subjected. Characteristics of Social Stratification: On the basis of the analysis of the different definitions given by eminent scholars, social stratification may have the following characteristics.
There is no society on this world which is free from stratification.
Modern stratification differs from stratification of primitive societies. It is a worldwide phenomenon. Factors like age, sex, intelligence as well as strength often contribute as the basis on which statues are distinguished.
Hence, stratification is social by nature. Stratification system is very old. It was present even in the small wondering bonds. In almost all the ancient civilizations, the differences between the rich and poor, humble andpowerful existed.
During the period of Plato and Kautilya even emphasis was given to political, social and economic inequalities.
The forms of stratification is not uniform in all the societies. In the modern world class, caste and estate are the general forms of stratification. In India a special type of stratification in the form of caste is found.
The ancient Aryas were divided into four varnas: The ancient Greeks were divided into freemen and slaves and the ancient Romans were divided into the particians and the plebians.
So every society, past or present, big or small is characterized by diversed forms of social stratification.Social Knowledge Social Sciences is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
It in turn has many branches, each of which is considered a "social science". The main social sciences include economics, political science, human geography, demography, and sociology.
Social stratification has been shown to cause many social problems. A comprehensive study of major world economies revealed that homicide, infant mortality, obesity, teenage pregnancies, emotional depression, teen suicide, and prison population all correlate with higher social inequality.
Sociology mostly deals with the study of social behaviors and activities in the society (Lu & Zheng, ). Some of the common analysis that forms part of sociology includes the investigation of social mobility factors, law, sexuality as well as religion and education factors (Widdop, & Cut.
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A: Social stratification in the Caribbean has been influenced by slavery, colonialism, plantations and indentured servitude, according to Cape Sociology.
The upper class consisted of white plantation owners, the middle class was educated brown-skinned mulattoes and had some entrepreneurial power, while the lower class was made of black slaves.
Causes of poverty Poverty is an exceptionally complicated social phenomenon, and trying to discover its causes is equally complicated. The stereotypic (and simplistic) explanation persists—that the poor cause their own poverty—based on the notion that anything is possible in America.