Diagnosis Screening for colon cancer Doctors recommend certain screening tests for healthy people with no signs or symptoms in order to look for early colon cancer. Finding colon cancer at its earliest stage provides the greatest chance for a cure.
Signs and symptoms[ edit ] Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors The signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer depend on the location of the tumor in the boweland whether it has spread elsewhere in the body metastasis.
The classic warning signs include: A number of genetic syndromes are also associated with higher rates of colorectal cancer. Colectomy, removal of the colon, may not suffice as a preventative measure because of the high risk of rectal cancer if the rectum remains.
A gene that appears to contribute to the potential for metastatic Colon cancer and its treatment, metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 MACC1has been isolated.
This gene is associated with the proliferation, invasion and scattering of colon cancer cells in cell culture, and tumor growth and metastasis in mice. MACC1 may be a potential target for cancer intervention, but this possibility needs to be confirmed with clinical studies.
The mutations can be inherited or acquiredand most probably occur in the intestinal crypt stem cell. These genes are normally important for stem cell renewal and differentiation, but when inappropriately expressed at high levels, they can cause cancer.
The p53 protein, produced by the TP53 gene, normally monitors cell division and kills cells if they have Wnt pathway defects. Eventually, a cell line acquires a mutation in the TP53 gene and transforms the tissue from a benign epithelial tumor into an invasive epithelial cell cancer.
Sometimes the gene encoding p53 is not mutated, but another protective protein named BAX is mutated instead. For example, genes encoding the proteins KRASRAFand PI3Kwhich normally stimulate the cell to divide in response to growth factors, can acquire mutations that result in over-activation of cell proliferation.
The chronological order of mutations is sometimes important. If a previous APC mutation occurred, a primary KRAS mutation often progresses to cancer rather than a self-limiting hyperplastic or borderline lesion. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer in this colon segment.
The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors. The term "field cancerization" was first used in to describe an area or "field" of epithelium that has been preconditioned by what were largely unknown processes at the time to predispose it towards development of cancer.
Likewise, epigenetic alterations present in tumors may have occurred in pre-neoplastic field defects. An expanded view of field effect has been termed "etiologic field effect", which encompasses not only molecular and pathologic changes in pre-neoplastic cells but also influences of exogenous environmental factors and molecular changes in the local microenvironment on neoplastic evolution from tumor initiation to death.
As described by Vogelstein et al. The oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are well studied and are described above under Pathogenesis. However, by comparison, epigenetic alterations in colon cancers are frequent and affect hundreds of genes. These microRNAs or miRNAs do not code for proteins, but they can target protein coding genes and reduce their expression.
Expression of these miRNAs can be epigenetically altered.Colon Cancer & Its Treatment By Homeopathy T he colon is another term for the large intestine, it is the lowest part of the digestive system.
Inside the colon, water and salt from solid wastes are extracted before the waste moves through the rectum and exits the body through the anus. The treatment you get for your colorectal cancer may depend on the “stage” of the disease. For all except stage IV, you’ll first get surgery to remove the tumor.
You may also get other treatments. Stage 0 Colorectal Cancer Treatment. Stage 0 colorectal cancer is found only in the innermost lining of the colon. Surgery should be able to take it out.
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A guide for journalists on colorectal cancer and its treatment. Contents 2 Overview 3 Section 1: The standard treatments for colorectal cancer are surgery, chemotherapy and biological therapies. Early-stage (localised) If the cancer begins to obstruct the colon.
Since stage 0 colon cancers have not grown beyond the inner lining of the colon, surgery to take out the cancer is often the only treatment needed.
In most cases this can be done by removing the polyp or taking out the area with cancer through a colonoscope (local excision). Colon cancer treatment often involves open surgical resection as the primary treatment for localized disease. Other modalities include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, radiation therapy, and local ablation.
Get detailed information about colon cancer treatment in this summary for clinicians.