The Romans organized expeditions to cross the Sahara desert with five different routes: All these expeditions were supported by legionaries and had mainly a commercial purpose. Only the one done by emperor Nero seemed to be a preparative for the conquest of Ethiopia or Nubia: One of the main reasons of the explorations was to get gold using the camel to transport it.
Ensuing colonies laid the foundation for the United States and are best approached from the perspective of European and African history. Renaissance America was settled during a European revival. We also call this period the Middle Agesthough it was no more in the middle of time than any other age medieval is Latin for the middle.
The only framework that held together any notion of a unified medieval Europe was Christianity, in the form of what we now call the Catholic Church.
Then, sometime around the 14thth centuries, Europe began to revitalize during the Renaissance when explorers found and settled the Americas. This is when science and reason began to compete for space in our brains with our ongoing belief in the otherworldly.
For most Europeans, especially peasants, their daily lives during the Renaissance would not have seemed much different than previous centuries. Life was still dirty, dark, violent, painful, and provincial by modern standards.
No one blew a whistle in and announced that the Dark Ages were over and that a new sunnier era had begun when everyone would be smarter and healthier.
Though the most famous Black Death ended around that time, plagues continued to sweep across Europe periodically.
Instead of blaming Catholics for keeping people in a stranglehold of illiteracy, torture and thought control, you could plausibly credit the medieval Church for keeping some cultural fires from antiquity burning in the form of Scriptural literacy, architecture, music and, dare we say, even science.
But the key omission in the traditional, grand narrative of European history and the Renaissance mentioned above is that the wisdom of ancient Greeks and Romans seems to disappear altogether for a thousand years, as if it was buried in the ground or hidden inside the Classical ruins medieval Europeans saw decaying all around them.
Leonardo is a good example of this back-and-forth of ideas. Not only did he typify the Renaissance with his wide interests — ranging from painting and sculpture to ornithology, aviation, botany, hydrology, geology, astronomy, etc.
Science transcends ethnic, religious, and political boundaries. The key to understanding the transition from medieval to Renaissance Europe is to widen the lens and broaden the geographic scope beyond Europe. Moreover, Islam expanded into southern Europe.
During the Renaissance, Eastern knowledge flowed into Europe in some cases, back into and Europeans modified and improved on Asian and Arab technology and ideas. When Spanish Christians conquered the Moorish Muslim city of Toledo in the 11th century, for instance, they acquired books about Arab medicine e.
Europeans set about translating Arab works over the next centuries. Because of encounters with the Near East and Asia via overland trade, the Crusades, and Islamic expansion into southern Europe, medieval Europeans benefited from key imports that laid the foundation for expansion into the Americas and elsewhere.
Together, these set the stage for the Age of Exploration. In farming, they pioneered wheelbarrows, hoes, moldboard plows, wind-blown threshers, trace breast harnesses, terraces, irrigation pumps, natural insecticides, and furrowed row crops.
Contrary to popular opinion, medieval European sailors did not think the world was flat, but neither could they sail far outside the sight of land with their simple broad-cloth sails nor consult terrestrial guides beyond the North Star.
Better boats and new navigational tools, imported from the East, allowed them to sail the open oceans.
They learned to use astrolabes and quadrants and, after the 16th century, cross-staffs and sextants to measure the Sun and Pole Star to figure latitude.
Europeans used Arab rig lateen multiple sails to better change direction and take advantage of trade winds. Chinese had discovered keels to stabilize boats and that lodestones orient themselves toward the South and North Poles when afloat.
These compasses helped European sailors navigate even when clouds blocked the Sun or stars. Chinese sailors under Kublai Khan invaded and colonized Java Indonesia in Even before that voyage, the Chinese had geographic knowledge as far west as Africa, as seen in this map.
Mongol invasions in the northern part of their kingdom distracted them and renovation of the Grand Canal within China made foreign trade less pressing because they could move their own goods around better.
The Chinese abandoned overseas exploration just as European upstarts like Portugal started it. They even outlawed ship construction and burned their ocean-going fleet and records in Europeans, conversely, developed an appetite for Asian goods like spices and derivative perfumesporcelain, opium, and silks at the very time the Chinese insulated themselves.
A century-and-a-half earlier, Venetian trader Marco Polo had already whetted the appetites of European merchants and consumers by relaying an account of East Asian wealth to a transcriber while he was imprisoned in the s.
Not only did China have silks and porcelain, but India had cotton and spices and fruits e. While no one in Europe was envisioning America at the time, medieval overland Asian trade routes changed history and triggered the Age of Exploration.
Trade goods, ideas, and diseases traversed Eurasia. The Chinese Mongolian invasion of Persia in forced Muslims there to tolerate outsiders and other religions, including Christian traders from the west. Mongol expansion under Genghis Khan created another advantage, despite its infamous brutality: Even if a European trader took a ship from Hormuz, in modern-day Iran, it was a long trip by land just to get to Persia and the ship leaving from there may or may not have been seaworthy.
Muslim expansion into southeastern Europe further obstructed the Silk Routes.The Roman Empire once dominated the Western world and stayed intact for almost years. Today, over 2, years later, ancient Rome's influence is still seen in art, architecture, engineering, language, literature, law, and religion.
Kids learn about the civilization and history of Ancient Rome including the Roman Republic, Empire, art, religion, army, daily life, people, Senate, and the fall of Rome.
Educational articles for students, schools, and teachers. Edward Gibbon has famously argued in his The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire that Christianity played a pivotal role, in that the new religion undermined the social mores of the empire which paganism provided.
Rautman discusses not only general issues of everyday life in the Byzantine Empire, but also probes into very specific topics.
Questions such as Who were some writers during the Byzantine Empire? as well as, How did people brush their teeth? are answered in this extensive study.
Early Career Roman official, first quarter of the second century. Tacitus was born in c, perhaps in southern Gaul. His father was a wealthy man and belonged to the second tier of the Roman elite, the knights, or - to use a more stately expression - the equestrian yunusemremert.com young man was sent to Rome to study what is called rhetorics, which is not .
Visit a Roman town, take a look around a villa and find out what technology the Romans brought to Britain. How did the Romans change Britain? When the Romans left Britain in AD they left their mark.